Critical Thinking in the Classroom Bibliography

Abrami, P. C., Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Surkes, M. A., Tamim, R., & Zhang, D. (2008). Instructional interventions affecting critical thinking skills and dispositions: A stage 1 meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 1102−1134.

Achieve. (2006). Closing the expectations gap 2006: An annual 50-state progress report on the alignment of high school policies with the demands of college and work. Retrieved from

Achieve. (2015). Rising to the challenge: Views on high school graduates’ preparedness for college and careers. Retrieved from

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives (complete edition). New York: Longman.

Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2013). It takes more than a major: Employer priorities for college learning and student success.Washington, DC: Hart Research Associates. Retrieved from

Averette, P. (n.d.). Save the last word for me.Retrieved from

Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Barnette, J. J., Walsh, J. A., Orlesky, S. R., & Sattes, B. D. (1995). Staff development for improved classroom questioning and learning. Research in the Schools, 2(1), 1−10.

Barron, B., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). How can we teach for meaningful learning? In L. Darling-Hammond, B. Barron, P. D. Pearson, A. H. Schoenfeld, E. K. Stage, T. D. Zimmerman, G. N. Cervetti, & J. L. Tilson (Eds.),Powerful learning: What we know about teaching for understanding(pp.11−70). SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Barth, W. R. (2002). Teaching skepticism via the CRITIC acronym and the skeptical inquirer. Skeptical Inquirer, 26.5, 42−44.

Berger, W. (2014a). A more beautiful question. New York: Bloomsbury.

Berger, W. (2014b, August 18). Five ways to help your students become better questioners [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Beyer, B. K. (1985). Critical thinking: What is it? Social Education49, 270−276.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan,80(2), 139−148. 

Blakeslee, S. (1994, November 8). Theory on human brain hints how its unique traits arose. New York Times. Retrieved from

Bloom, B. S. (Ed.). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay.

Bloomfield, L., & Magney, A. (2009). Does facilitator expertise matter? A perspective from scenario-based learning questions. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-disciplinary Journal10(3), 12.

Boykin, A. W., & Noguera, P. (2011). Creating the opportunity to learn: Moving from research to practice to close the achievement gap. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Brookfield, S. (2011). Teaching for critical thinking: Tools and techniques to help students question their assumptions.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Bruin, W. B., Parker, A. M., & Fischoff, B. (2007). Individual differences in adults’ decision-making competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 938–956.

Buck, G. A. (2002). Teaching discourses: Science teachers’ responses to the voices of adolescent girls. Learning Environments Research, 5, 29−50.

Buck Institute. (2013a). Critical thinking rubric for PBL: Grades K−2. Retrieved from

Buck Institute. (2013b). Critical thinking rubric for PBL: Grades 3−5. Retrieved from

Buck Institute. (2013c). Critical thinking rubric for PBL: Grades 6−12. Retrieved from

Chapin, S., O’Connor, C., & Anderson, N. (2009). Classroom discussions: Using math talk to help students learn. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.

Chung, R., Kasprian, G., Brugger, P. C., & Prayer, D. (2009). The current state and future of fetal imaging. Clin Perinatol, 36, 685−699.

Church, R. B., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1986). Using the relationships between gesture and speech to capture transitions in learning. Cognition, 23, 43−71.

Clayton, H. (2013). Creating classroom cultures for thinking. Just ASK Publications and Professional Development. Retrieved from

Cleaver, S. (2014, March 18). Moving beyond classroom discussions [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learnings: A systematic and critical review. Learning and Skills Research Centre. Retrieved from

Collins, M. F. (2005). ESL preschoolers’ English vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 406–408.

Corwin. (2016). Deepening learning. Reprinted from Fullan, M. & Quinn, J. Coherence: the right drivers in action for schools, districts, and systems.Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Costa, A. L. (Ed.). (1985). Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking.Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Costa, A. (1991). The search for intelligent life. In A. Costa (Ed.). Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking (Rev. ed., Vol. 1, pp. 100–106). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Costa, A. (2008). The school as a home for the mind (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. 

Costa, A. & Kallick, B. (Eds.). (2008). Learning and leading with habits of mind: 16 essential characteristics for success. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Costa, A., & Kallick, B. (Eds.). (2009).Habits of mind across the curriculum: Practical and creative strategies for teachers. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 

Council on Competitiveness (2008). Compete 2.0 thrive: The skills imperative. Washington, DC: Council on Competitiveness.

Crowl, T. K., Kaminsky, S., & Podell, D. M. (1997). Educational psychology, windows on teaching. New York: Brown & Benchmark.

Danielson, C. (2013). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument. Retrieved from

de Bono, E. (1985). Six thinking hats. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company.

de Bono, E. (1992). Serious creativity. NY: Harper Business.

de Bono, E. (2002). Tactics: The art and science of success. London:Profile Business.

Dexter, D. D., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Graphic organizers and students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 34, 51−72.

Diamond, M., & Hopson, J. (1999). Magic trees of the mind: How to nurture your child’s intelligence, creativity, and healthy emotions form birth through adolescence. New York: Penguin/Plume.

Dillon, J. T. (1983). Teaching and the art of questioning. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa.

Dolderer, S. (2010). Say something. Retrieved from

Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success.New York: Ballantine.

Dweck, C. S. (2002). Beliefs that make smart people dumb. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.). Why smart people can be so stupid. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 

Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effects of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 66(2), 183–201.

Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2008). The thinker’s guide to intellectual standards: The words that name them and the criteria that define them.Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press.

Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2010). Critical thinking: Competency standards essential for the cultivation of intellectual skills, part 1. Journal of Developmental Education, 34(2),38−39.

Engel, S. (2014). Can we talk? Educational Leadership, 73(1),54−59.

Ennis, R. H. (2013, November). Twenty-one strategies and tactics for teaching critical thinking[Web log message]. Retrieved from

Facione, P. A. (1990a). Technical report #1: Experimental validity and content validity. Millbrae: California Academic Press.(ERIC 327549).

Facione, P. A. (1990b). Technical report #2: Factors predictive of CT skills. East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC 327550).

Facione, P. A. (2011). Think critically. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pearson Education.

Ferlazzo, L. (2010, January 20). Point, quote, connect [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Ferlazzo, L. (2014, April 4). Response: Ways to cultivate ‘whole-class engagement’ [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2014). Talking and listening speaking volumes. Educational Leadership, 72(3), 18−23.

Flanders, N. (1970). Analyzing teacher behavior.Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Fouche, J. (2015). Predicting student misconceptions in science. Educational Leadership, 73(1), 60−65.

Frank, P. (1947). Einstein: His life and times. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Franker, K. (2007). Elementary teamwork rubric. Retrieved from

Gabbard C., & Barton J. (1979). Effects of physical activity on mathematical computation among young children. Journal of Psychology, 103, 287−288. 

Gall, M. D. (1984). Synthesis of research on teachers’ questioning. Educational Leadership, 42(3), 40−47.

Gardner, H. (1999). The disciplined mind. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Gates Foundation (2015). Teachers know best: Making data work for teachers and students. Seattle, WA: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved from

Given, H., Kuh, L., LeeKeenan, D., Mardell, B., Redditt, S., & Twombly, S. (2010). Changing school culture: Using documentation to support collaborative inquiry. Theory into Practice,49, 36−46.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.

Gordon, D. (2011). Return to sender. Technology Horizons in Education Journal,38, 30−35.

Gregory, G., & Kaufeldt, M. (2015). The motivated brain: Improving student attention, engagement, and perseverance. Alexandria, VA: ASCD

Halpern, D. F. (2003). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to criticalthinking(4th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Halpern, D. F. (2009). Foreword. In D. S. Dunn, J. S. Halonen, & R. A. Smith (Eds.).Teaching critical thinking in psychology: A handbook of best practices (pp. xv−xvi). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. 

Hannaford, C. (2005). Smart moves: Why learning is not all in the head (2nd ed.).Marshall, NC: Great Ocean. 

Hardee, E. (2015). Engineering a school turnaround. Educational Leadership, 72, 86−91.

Helgeson, J. (2011). Four simple ways to add movement in daily lessons. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 47(2), 80−84. Retrieved from

Herman, J., & Linn, R. (2014). New assessments, new rigor. Educational Leadership, 71(6), 34−37.

Hess, K. (2006, revised 2013). Linking research with action: A local assessment toolkit to guide school leaders: Exploring cognitive rigor. Underhill, VT: Educational Research in Action, LLC.

Hess, K. (2016, April 25). 3 essential college- and career-ready skill sets that support deeper learning and prepare students for life after high school[Web log message]. Retrieved from

Hess, K., Carlock, D., Jones, B., & Walkup, J. (2009). What exactly do “fewer, clearer, and higher standards” really look like in the classroom? Using cognitive rigor matrix to analyze curriculum, plan lessons, and implement assessments. In K. Hess, Local Assessment Toolkit: Exploring Cognitive Rigor. Retrieved from!Fewer-clearer-and-higher-standards/cmbz/91/01F31B21-D92E-4550-AEB6-81AFBE0A20BC

Honigsfeld, A., & Dunn, R. (2009). Learning-style responsive approaches for teaching typically performing and at-risk adolescents. Clearing House, 82(5), 220−224. 

Hunkins, F. (1995). Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed.). Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon.

Hyerle, D. N. & Alper, L. (2014). Pathways to thinking schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 

International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English (n.d.) Strategy guide: Brainstorming and reviewing using the carousel strategy.Retrieved from

International Society for Technology in Education. (2007). ISTE standards for students. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education. Retrieved from

International Society for Technology in Education. (2008). ISTE standards for teachers. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education. Retrieved from

Jensen, E. (2000). Moving with the brain in mind. Educational Leadership, 58(3),34−37.

Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Jukes, I., McCain, T., & Crockett, L. (2010). Understanding the digital generation: Teaching and learning in the new digital landscape.Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Kagan, S., and Kagan, M. (1998). Multiple intelligences: The complete MI book. San Cemente, CA: Kagan. 

Kagan, S., & Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan cooperative learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan.

Kauchak, D. P. & Eggen, P. (1998). Educational psychology: Windows on Classrooms (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kay, K. (2010). Foreward. In J. Bellanca & R. Brandt (Eds.), 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn(pp. xiii–xxxi). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

Kendon, A. (1988). How gestures can become like words. In F. Poyatos (Ed.). Cross-cultural perspectives in nonverbal communication(pp. 131−141). New York: Hogrefe.

Ketch, A. (2005). Conversation: The comprehension connection. The Reading Teacher,59(1), 8−13.

Kindersely, D. (2012). The psychology book. London: Penguin.

King, A. (1991). Improving lecture comprehension: Effect of a meta-cognitive strategy. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5(4), 331−346.

Kinoshita, H. (1997). Run for your brain’s life. Brain Work, 7(1), 8.

Kurfiss, J. G. (1988). Critical thinking: Theory, research, practice, and possibilities (Report No. 0-913317-44-6). Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Higher Education. 

Laur, D. (2014, December 14). Spider web discussions as a formative assessment [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Lipton, L. & Wellman, B. (2011). Groups at work: Strategies and structures in professional learning.Sherman, CT: MiraVia.

MACAT. (2016, April 21). Why we need critical thinking, in 22 quotes [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Martinez, M. (2014). Deeper learning: The new normal. Retrieved from

Marzano, R. (2007). The art and science of teaching: A comprehensive framework for effective instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Marzano, R. J. (2009). Setting the record straight on “high yield” strategies. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(1), 30–37.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Heflebower, T. (2011). The highly engaged classroom. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory.

Masera, R. M. (2010). Effects of traditional versus tactual/kinesthetic versus interactive-whiteboard instruction on primary students’ vocabulary achievement- and attitude-test scores.(Doctoral dissertation, St. John’s University, New York). (ERIC ED 519042).

Maxwell, M., Stobaugh, R., & Tassell, J. (2015). Real-world learning framework for secondary schools: Digital tools and practical strategies for successful implementation.Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. 

Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user’s manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

McConnell, C., Hoover, G., & Sasse, C. (2001). Using the ARCS model to design motivating curriculum. Proceedings of the Academy of Educational Leadership, 6(1), 119−123. 

McTighe, J., & Lyman, F. T. (1992). Mind tools for matters of the mind. In A. L. Costa, J. A. Bellana, & R. Fogarty (Eds.), If minds matter: A foreword to the future, Volume II (pp. 71−90). Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing.

McTighe, J., & Wiggins, G. (2013).Essential questions: Opening doors to student understanding. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Mead, M. (n.d.). Quotery. Retrieved from

Mentoring Minds. (2016). Total motivation® science for the next generation.(Teacher Ed., Level 5). Boston, MA: Mentoring Minds, L.P.

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Moore, D. W., & Readence, J. E. (1984). A quantitative and qualitative review of graphic organizer research. Journal of Educational Research, 78(1), 11−17.

National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children birth through age 8. Retrieved from

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Nimz, L. & Michel, J. (2012). Can you hear me now? Applying brain research and technology to engage today’s students.Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.

Nisbett, R. E. (2016). Tools for smarter thinking. Educational Leadership, 73(6), 24−28.

Olson, C. B., Scarcella, R. B., & Matuchniak, T. (2015). Helping English learners to write: Meeting Common Core Standards, grades 6−12. New York: Teacher College Press.

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2011). Asking effective questions. Retrieved from

Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory: Retrospect and current status. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45(3), 255−287.

Pate, M. L., & Miller, G. (2011). Effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level students’ problem solving performance. Journal of Agricultural Education, 52(1), 72−84.

Paul, R. (1990). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. Rohnert Park, CA: Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique.

Paul, R., Binker, A. J. A., Martin, D., & Adamson, K. (n.d.). Critical thinking and nursing. Tomales, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Retrieved from:

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Paul, R. W., & Elder, L. (2005). A guide for educators to critical thinking competency standards: Standards, principles, performance indicators and outcomes with a critical thinking master rubric.Tomales, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. 

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2005). Critical thinking: Tools for taking charge of your learning and your life(3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NY: Prentice Hall.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2007a). A guide for educators to critical thinking competency standards (2nd ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2007b). The miniatureguide to critical thinking: Concepts and tools. San Francisco: The Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2013). Critical thinking in everyday life: 9 strategies.Retrieved from

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Perkins, D. (1991). What creative thinking is. In A. Costa (Ed.), Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking, Vol. 1 (Rev. ed.) pp. 85–88. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Perkins, D. (2003). Making thinking visible.Retrieved from

Piaget, J. (1959). The language and thought of the child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 

Pianta, R. C., Belsky, J., Houts, R., & Morrison, F. (2007). Opportunities to learn in America’s elementary classrooms. Science, 315(5280), 1795−1796.

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Project Tomorrow. (2013). Digital learning 24/7: Understanding technology-enhanced learning in the lives of today’s students.Irvine, CA: Project Tomorrow. Retrieved from

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Reznitskaya, A., Anderson, R., & Kuo, L. (2007). Teaching and Learning Argumentation. Elementary School Journal, 107(5), 449−472.

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Ritchhart, R. (2002). Intellectual character: What it is, why it matters, and how to get it.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Ritchhart, R. (2015). Creating cultures of thinking: The 8 forces we must master to truly transform our schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Ritchhart, R., Church, M., & Morrison, K. (2011). Making thinking visible: How to promote engagement, understanding and independence for all learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

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Stobaugh, R. (2013a).Assessing critical thinking in elementary schools: Meeting the Common Core. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, Inc.

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Stobaugh, R., & Love, S. (2016). Misunderstanding critical thinking. School Administrator, 73(2), 14−15. 

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Tovani, C. (2015). Let’s switch questioning around. Educational Leadership, 73(1), 30−35.

Tucker, C. (2015). More than a Google search. Educational Leadership, 73(1), 78−79.

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Wagner, T. (2008). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don’t teach the new survival skills our children need—and what we can do about it.New York: Basic Books.

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About the Authors

Sandra L. Love, Ed.D., is the Educator Resources Managing Editor at Mentoring Minds. A recipient of the National Distinguished Principal Award, Dr. Love spent 37 years in public education both as a teacher and principal, where she gained experience at the elementary, middle school, and higher education levels. She holds an Ed.D. in Curriculum and Instruction from Mississippi State University. She has authored numerous articles and develops educational resources for teachers and school leaders on critical thinking and instructional strategies.

Rebecca Stobaugh, Ph.D.,has been a principal and middle and high school teacher. She is the author of four books: Assessing Critical Thinking in Middle and High Schools, Assessing Critical Thinking in Elementary Schools, Real-World Learning Framework for Secondary Schools, and Real-World Learning Framework for Elementary Schools. She received a Ph.D. in K-12 Education Leadership from the University of Louisville and currently serves as an associate professor at Western Kentucky University. Dr. Stobaugh regularly conducts professional development to support teachers and schools within the U.S. and abroad.

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